Professor of International Security

Lancaster University
Department of Politics, Philosophy and Religion (PPR)



I am Professor of International Security in the Department of Politics, Philosophy and Religion (PPR).

I joined Lancaster University in July 2023 as part of the University's Security and Protection Science initiative. Prior to that I held permanent positions at the University of Nottingham and the University of St Andrews and was a Marie Curie (MSCA-IF) fellow at Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), working on the two-year European Commission-funded project Strategic Cultures of Cyber Warfare (CYBERCULT). Previously I was Senior Lecturer in the New Zealand Institute for Security and Crime Science (NZISCS) at the University of Waikato.

My expertise is in the area of Cyber Conflict and Emerging Technologies. I teach courses on Cyber Security, Artificial Intelligence, Strategic Studies and International Security and work on an interdisciplinary research agenda on cyber security, terrorism, organised crime, maritime security, norm diffusion, conflict prevention, regional collective security and non-proliferation.

I have worked at the highest levels of professional politics and policy, as a ministerial advisor in New Zealand and the UK, national campaign coordinator, legislative assistant, researcher, and political organiser. I hold a Doctorate in International Relations and a Master of International Studies degree from the University of Otago and an undergraduate degree in International Relations from the University of Wales, Aberystwyth.

I am recipient of the US Department of State (DoS) SUSI Fellowship (New York, Washington D.C.), the Taiwan Fellowship (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Taipei), and have been visiting researcher and lecturer at the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE) in Tallinn, Estonia.

I have participated in policy development processes in New Zealand (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Defence, Intelligence Community) and in the ASEAN Region (ASEAN Regional Forum, ADMM+ Experts Working Group on Cyber Security, bi/trilateral track 1.5 and track 2 dialogues, e.g. Council for Security and Cooperation in the Asia Pacific - CSCAP).

My research has received funding from the US Department of State, the Taiwan Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme (NATO SPS), NATO CCDCOE, and from the European Commission (Marie Curie program).

Présentation des recherches

My research is focused on regional responses to transnational security challenges, most notably cyber security (especially political, human and cognitive factors), and with a focus on the Euro Atlantic and Asia Pacific regions. My doctoral research analysed NATO’s durability in the post-Cold War era and how the alliance was able to adapt to a globalising security environment. I have strong interdisciplinary research experience, including working with psychologists, behavioural scientists, statisticians, and computer scientists on security issues, including cyber security, Artificial Intelligence, maritime security, non-proliferation, regional collective security, information warfare and hybrid threats. I offer a variety of courses in Cyber Security, Strategic Studies and Security Studies and have extensive experience of professional and executive education in the military, defence and government sectors (e.g. NATO CCDCOE - Executive Cyber Seminar, New Zealand Defence Force Command and Staff College – NZDF CSC, Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam - DAV). 

Travaux sélectionnés


  • Steff, R., Burton, J., and Soare, S. R. (eds.), Machines the State and War: Emerging Technologies and International Security (Routledge, forthcoming 2019/20).
  • Burton, J. (2018). NATO’s Durability in a Post-Cold War World, SUNY Press: New York.
  • Headley, J., Reitzig, A., & Burton, J. eds. (2012). More Power to the People? Public Participation in Foreign Policy, Palgrave Macmillan.

Peer reviewed journal articles

  • Burton, J. (2018). NATO’s “Global Partners” in Asia: Shifting Strategic Narratives, Asian Security, 14:1, 8-23, DOI: 10.1080/14799855.2017.1361728
  • Chaban, N., Bacon, P., Burton, J., & Vernygora, V. (2018). NATO Global Perceptions: Views from the Asia-Pacific Region, Asian Security, 14:1, 1-7, DOI: 10.1080/14799855.2017.1361726
  • Wellings, B., Kelly, S., Wilson, B., Burton J., & Holland M., (2018). Narrative Alignment and Misalignment: NATO as a Global Actor as Seen from Australia and New Zealand, Asian Security, 14:1, 24-37, DOI: 10.1080/14799855.2017.1361731
  • Bacon, P., & Burton, J., (2018). NATO-Japan Relations: Projecting Strategic Narratives of “Natural Partnership” and Cooperative Security, Asian Security, 14:1, 38-50, DOI: 10.1080/14799855.2017.1361730
  • Yoon, S., Jamiyandagva, A., Vernygora, V., Burton, J., Luguusharav, B., & Dorjraa, M., (2018). Views on NATO from Mongolia and the Republic of Korea: Hedging Strategy, and “Perfunctory Partnership”?, Asian Security, 14:1, 51-65, DOI: 10.1080/14799855.2017.1361733
  • Burton, J. (2015). NATO’s Cyber Defence: Strategic Challenges and Institutional Adaptation. Defence Studies, 15(4), 297-319. doi:10.1080/14702436.2015.1108108
  • Burton, J. (2013). Small States and Cyber Security: The case of New Zealand. Political Science, 65(2), 216-238. doi:10.1177/0032318713508491

Book chapters

  • Burton J. (2019). “Small States and International Organisations: New Zealand’s Diversifying International Engagement”, in Brady, Anne-Marie (ed.) Small States and the New Security Environment (forthcoming Springer, 2019).
  • Burton J. and Soare, S. R. (2019).  “Understanding the Strategic Implications of the Weaponization of Artificial Intelligence”, in Alatu, S. (ed.) 11th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, CyCon XI: Silent Battle, (forthcoming, NATO CCD COE Publications)
  • Burton J. (2018). “Cyber Security Norms in the Euro-Atlantic Region: NATO and the EU as Norm Entrepreneurs and Norm Diffusers”, in A. Gruszczak and P. Frankowski (eds.), Technology, Ethics and the Protocols of Modern War. London: Routledge.
  • Burton J. (2017), “Recalibration, Rapprochement and Resocialization: US-New Zealand Relations and the Obama Administration’s ‘Pivot’ to Asia,” in Robert Patman and Iati Iati (eds.), New Zealand and the World: Past, Present and Future.  Singapore: World Scientific.
Other publications

Burton J. (2019). “Four Lessons We Must Take Away Frome the Christchurch Attacks”, The Conversation, available:

Burton, J. (2018). “Cyber Deterrence: A Comprehensive Approach?” NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE), available:

Burton J. (2018). “Hacking your holiday: how cyber criminals are increasingly targeting the tourism market”, The Conversation, available at:

Burton J. (2017). “The US election hack, fake news, data theft: the cyber security lessons from 2017”, The Conversation. Available at:

Burton, J. (2017).  “Cyberspace aggression adds to North Korea’s threat to global security”, The Conversation. Available at:

Burton, J. and Ko, R. (2017). “Ransomware attack needs global solution”, May 22, 2017

Burton, J. (2017) Policy Brief: “New Zealand’s Agenda at the UN and other International Organisations: International Governance of Cyberspace”, SSANSE Project: Small states and the changing global order: New Zealand faces the future, available:

Burton J. (2016), “Cyber Attacks and Maritime Situational Awareness: Evidence from Japan and Taiwan”, Conference Proceedings, International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA), available:

Burton, J. (2016), Review of Valeriano, Brandon, Maness, Ryan C., Cyber War versus Cyber Realities: Cyber Conflict in the International System, available:

Burton, J. (2015).  Commissioned report for Taiwan Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) on ‘Cyber Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific’.

Burton, J. (2015) “Cyber Warfare: Through Enemy Lines”, NZ Listener (cover story), November 2015, available online:  

Burton, J., (2015) “Role Call: New Zealand and NATO”, NZ Listener, March 2015, available online:   

Burton J., (2015) “Blog: US Embassy New Zealand: My SUSI experience: Grand Strategy on the Hudson”, available:

Burton J., (2015) “Blog: Cyber warfare – a new strategic reality”, May 13th, 2015 Public Talks series commemorating World War One:

Burton, J, (2013) “Cyber Security: The Strategic Challenge and New Zealand's Response”, New Zealand International Review, Volume 38, Issue 3, 2013, 5-8.

Burton, J, (2013) “Cyberspaces and Global Affairs” (Book Review), New Zealand International Review, Volume 38, Issue 3, 2013, p. 29. 

Burton, J. (2012). “NATO after the Cold War: Explaining the Durability of the Atlantic Alliance in a New Global Context”, PhD thesis, University of Otago.

Mis à jour le 15 septembre 2023